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Gastroenterology

What is Gastroenterology?

Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. In the United States, gastroenterology is an internal medicine subspecialty certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine (AOBIM).

Who should consider Gastroenterology Surgery?

Gastrointestinal disorders include such conditions as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, perianal abscesses, anal fistulas, perianal infections, diverticular diseases, colitis, colon polyps and cancer. Many of these can be prevented or minimized by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, practicing good bowel habits, and submitting to cancer screening..

Weight loss and change in bowel habit are the alarming symptoms for gastroenterology. Apart from these, there are some conditions where the patient is required to consult a specialist –

  • Constipation
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Blood in the stool
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease or Acid Reflux
medical treatments in India

Gastroenterology Disorders

The organs affected by gastrointestinal system

  • Bowel and colon cancers
  • Biliary tract disease
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Cholecystitis
  • Gastric cancers
  • Hepatitis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Colon polyps
  • Esophageal cancers
  • Cancer and gall bladder stones
  • Achalasia
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Malabsorption and nutritional problems
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux

Types of Gastrointestinal Surgery

Different types of gastrointestinal surgery can treat the following conditions that can improve quality of life of for many patients. Some of these conditions include –

  • Mediastinal masses
  • Achalasia
  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPR)
  • Paraesophageal hernias, hiatal hernias and ventral hernias
  • Gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) or severe heartburn
  • GIST and other stomach tumors
  • Esophageal disease
  • Anorectal disease including rectal prolapse, incontinence
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
  • Enterocutaneous fistula and short bowel syndrome

The extent and type of GI (Gastrointestinal Surgery) largely depend upon the location and the size of the cancer. Gastrointestinal surgery could be the only treatment and can also be performed along with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  • Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery is used for treating the early stages of gallbladder cancers.
  • Stomach Cancer: Gastrectomy is the procedure by which the stomach cancer is treated. Partial gastrectomy is used for removing a part of the stomach. The remaining part of the stomach is connected with esophagus to the small intestine.
  • Liver Cancer:Hepatectomy is the surgical procedure for removing the parts of liver. 80% of the liver can be removed if the rest liver tissue is healthy. The left part of the liver helps in proper functioning of the liver.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Whipple procedure is used for treating pancreatic cancer in order to remove the first part of the small intestine, head of the pancreas, part of the stomach and the bile duct. The tail and body of the spleen and the pancreas can be removed with the help of a distal pancreatectomy procedure.
  • Esophageal Cancer: A part or the entire esophagus can be removed with the help of esophagectomy procedure. This is done for treating the esophageal cancer.
  • Colorectal Cancer: The removal of the rectum or a segment of the colon and the 2 remaining ends are reconnected for the purpose of treating the colorectal cancer. The colostomy is the rare procedure by which a new path is created for taking out the waste products. An opening is made in the abdomen for connecting the opening with the intestine. A bag is then fitted in the opening in order to collect the waste.

Gastroenterology Diseases and Treatments

Diseases of the Small Intestine

  • Obscure bleeding and Diverticulosis
  • Mal Absorption Syndrome
  • Tuberculosis

Diseases of the Duodenum and Stomach

  • Fungal Infections
  • Ulcers
  • Cancer

Diseases of the Gall Bladder

  • Cancer of the Bladder
  • Cholecystitis
  • Stone diseases

Diseases of the Colon

  • Tuberculosis
  • Inflammantory Bowel Disease
  • Cancer and Diverticulosis

Diseases of the Pancreas

  • Pseudo Pancreatic Cyst
  • Pancreas Cancer
  • Chronic Pancreatitis
  • Acute Pancreatitis

Diseases of the Esophagus

  • Achalasia Cardia
  • Variceal Bleeding
  • Foreign body removal
  • Malignant and benign strictures

Diseases of the Liver

  • Cirrhosis
  • Acute Hepatitis
  • Amoebic Abscess
  • Chronic Hepatitis
  • Liver Cancer