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Neurology in India

What is Neurology ?

Neurology is primarily concerned with disorders of the nervous system and brain. The neurological disorders include diseases involving autonomic, central and peripheral nervous systems. It may also include muscles, blood vessels and nerves. Neurological diseases include diseases of peripheral muscles and nerves, neuromuscular junctions and spinal cord. Disorders of spinal cord, nerves and the brain commonly treated by neurologists include –

  • Epilepsy
  • Tremor
  • Stroke
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Heartache
  • Pain
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Sleep disorders
  • Spinal cord and brain injuries
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Peripheral nerve disorders

Pediatric Neurology

Pediatric Neurology is specifically concerned with neurological problems in children who are under 18 years of age. It has been seen that large

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number of children are suffering from neurological diseases and epilepsy. The primary concern of a pediatric neurologist is to treat disorders of peripheral, central and autonomous nervous systems. Their primary role is to confront the unique symptoms of epilepsy in children.

Neurological Disorders in Children & Symptoms

  • Autistic disorders
  • Congenital anomalies of the brain and Hydrocephalus
  • Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit (ADD)
  • Headaches
  • Brain and spinal cord tumors
  • Seizure disorders
  • Concussion and head trauma
  • Balance and equilibrium
  • Metabolic-degenerative diseases of the brain
  • Neuromuscular disorders
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Tourette syndrome, tic disorders and movement disorders

Some common symptoms include –

  • Pain
  • Weakness
  • Tremor
  • Seizures
  • Headaches
  • Memory loss
  • Numbness

Neurological Diagnostic Tests

A patient has to go through a number of tests that include x-rays of the patient’s skull and chest, neurological exam, patient history and physical exam. These tests are done in order to determine specific neurological injury or disorder. Nuclear medicine imaging is also involved, where little amounts of radioactive materials are used to examine organ structure and function. Diagnostic imaging involves use of electrical charges and magnets for examining human anatomy. Some of the common tests include –

  • Biopsy
  • Computed tomography
  • Intrathecal contrast-enhanced CT scan
  • Cerebral fluid analysis
  • Discography
  • Brain scans
  • Angiography
  • Electromyography
  • Electronystagmography (ENG)
  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Polysomnogram
  • Ultrasound imaging
  • Thermography
  • Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

What is Neurosurgery ?

Surgery involving the nervous system is termed as neurosurgery. Neurosurgery is a medical specialty that is primarily concerned with the treatment and diagnosis of the patients who are suffering from disorders or diseases of the spinal column, spinal cord, brain and peripheral nerves. Both pediatric and adult patients are included in neurological care. A neurological surgeon recommends surgical and non-surgical care depending upon the nature of the disease or injury.

What is Pediatric Neurosurgery ?

Pediatric neurology is primarily concerned with any disorder of the central nervous system such as spinal cord, brain, muscles and nerves in children. A pediatric neurologist treats and diagnosis conditions that include behavioral problems such as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and seizure disorders such as epilepsy.

Symptoms of Pediatric Neurological Disorders

  • Seizures or Spasms
  • Concentration Issues
  • Poor Muscle Coordination
  • Muscle Tone Issues
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Diagnosis of Pediatric Disorders

A number of tests are performed to diagnose pediatric disorder, such as –

  • Psychological and educational evaluations
  • Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies: Brief electrical impulses are applied to the skin at various sites, to measure muscle responsiveness.
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): MRA techniques are used to detect problems in veins, blood vessels and arteries.
  • Angiography: In this test, blood vessel images are produced for the brain and other areas of the body.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): In an MRI, magnetic fields along with radio wave energy pulses are used to produce images of the structures and organs within the body.
  • Computer tomography (CT) scanning and 3D reconstruction CT: X-rays are used to create cross-sectional images of the body.

Treatments for Pediatric Diseases

There are few non-invasive treatment procedures by which congenital vascular malformations, epilepsy, movement disorders and brain tumors can be effectively treated. Patients who are suffering from medically refractory epilepsy can be treated by using Ketogenic Diet Program.

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What is Neuro Spine Surgery?

Neuro Spine Surgery known as neurological surgery or neurosurgery, is primarily concerned with diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disorders that affect any part of the nervous system. The nervous system includes the brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord and extra- cranial cerebrovascular system. The practice of neuro spine surgery is performed for correcting diseases and injuries of the spinal cord. The procedure relieves pain in the spinal cord and restores function of the suppressed nerves. Lower back and neck conditions are also corrected through this procedure.

Types of Neuro and Spine Surgeries

 

  • Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
  • Complex Spine Surgery
  • Minimally Invasive Neck and Back Surgery
  • Gamma Knife
  • Skull-based and Pituitary Tumors
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Pain Management
  • Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
  • Spinal Decompression Rehabilitation Therapy (IDD)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • Cerebral Vascular Brain Disorders
  • Hydrocephalus/ Arnold Chiari Malformation
  • Disc disease
  • Percutaneous procedures
  • Open and other interventional procedures
  • Spinal malformations
  • Spinal dysraphism
  • Spine reconstruction and fixation
  • Surgical pain management
  • Spine trauma care
  • Percutaneous vertebroplasty

Some common symptoms include –

  • Pain
  • Weakness
  • Tremor
  • Seizures
  • Headaches
  • Memory loss
  • Numbness

Surgical Procedures of Neuro Spine Surgery

  • ALIF: Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
  • Anterior Cervical Discectomy & Fusion
  • Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement, Prestige®
  • Cervical Posterior Foraminotomy
  • Dekompressor Discectomy
  • Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release
  • Interspinous Process Decompression – X-STOP®
  • Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy (IDET)
  • Kyphoplasty
  • Laminectomy
  • Laminectomy (Cervical) with Fusion
  • Lumbar Radiofrequency Neurotomy
  • Micro Endoscopic Discectomy
  • Minimally-Invasive Lumbar Microdecompression
  • Minimally-Invasive TLIF (Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion)
  • PLIF: Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation (Paddle Lead)
  • Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant
  • Total Disc Replacement
  • Vertebroplasty
  • XLIF® Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion