Robotic Surgery (robotically-assisted surgery) is a minimally evasive procedure that aims to increase the capabilities of surgeons for performing open surgeries. Haptic (surgeon guided) and autonomous are the two robotic systems. The other type of surgery is passive surgery systems which has become popular recently with the surgeons. The surgery enhances the precision of the surgeons and uses surgical robots during the surgery like the active systems. They prepare bony surfaces in orthopedic surgery with greater precision.
The persistent hip pain for than 3 months can lead to a permanent
problem. Hip impingement, torn labrum and osteoarthritis or arthritis
are the most possible causes of this problem. The various surgeries
such as total hip replacement, arthroscopic hip surgery and hip
resurfacing surgery, can be performed to remove the hip pain. The
most successful orthopedic surgery is the modern robotic surgery.
The aim of hip arthroscopic surgery is to lessen the inflammation and
pain in the hip joint that have been caused by wear, arthritis or injury.
The two surgical procedures that are specially designed to repair the
damaged parts or portions of the hip joint are Arthroscopic hip surgery
and Total hip replacement surgery.
This minimally invasive surgery is performed when there is a hip pain coming either from other tissues or damaged cartilage around the hip joint. The aim is to remove the debris from the hip joint and thereby also reducing the inflammation. The surgery can also ease painful symptoms of a large number of problems which is damaging the articular cartilage, soft tissues surrounding the hip joint or labrum.
This advanced procedure involves a robotic arm to assist in preparing
and planning the knee to employ knee replacement implants. The
procedure of Makoplasty can relieve the pain of mid-stage knee
Osteoarthritis. Partial knee surfacing (unicompartmental surgery)
focuses on the damaged parts of the knee and helps in providing a
normal knee. The healthy cartilage, ligaments and bones are very well
preserved. The surgery relieves the knee pain, makes the knee strong,
offers natural knee function with better motion and alignment along
with improved balance.
Tendons are tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones. When you contract (tighten) a group of muscles, the attached tendons will pull on certain bones, allowing you to make a wide range of physical movements.
If tendinitis is severe and leads to the rupture of a tendon, you may need surgical repair. But most cases of tendinitis can be successfully treated with rest, physical therapy and medications to reduce pain
If there isn’t enough healthy tendon to reconnect, the surgeon may
perform a tendon graft using a piece of tendon from another part of the
body. It may be from the foot or toe, for example. On occasion, a tendon
transfer (moving a tendon from one area to another) may be useful in
Anesthesia (pain medication) is used during tendon repair to prevent the
patient from feeling pain during the surgery.
Risk factors for developing tendinitis include age, working in particular jobs or participating in certain sports.
As people get older, their tendons become less flexible — which makes them easier to injure.
Tendinitis is more common in people whose jobs involve:
You may be more likely to develop tendinitis if you participate in certain sports that involve repetitive motions, especially if your technique isn’t optimal. This can occur with:
Tendon repairs are usually done on an outpatient basis. This means the patient can go home after the surgery. If the patient does stay in the hospital, it’s usually for a short period of time.
Healing can take up to 12 weeks. The injured tendon may need to be supported with a splint or cast to take tension off of the repaired tendon.
Physical therapy or occupational therapy is usually necessary to return movement in a safe manner. Expect movement to return gradually, with some stiffness.
You may need treatment after the surgery to minimize scar tissue. Too much scar tissue can make it difficult to move the damaged tendon.
Without proper treatment, tendinitis can increase your risk of
experiencing tendon rupture — a much more serious condition that may
require surgical repair.
If tendon irritation persists for several weeks or months, a condition
known as tendinosis may develop. This condition involves degenerative
changes in the tendon itself, along with abnormal new blood vessel
To reduce your chance of developing tendinitis, follow these suggestions:
Robotic Surgery is a leading edge technology that is used in several specialties to carry out the surgical procedures with proven superior patient outcomes. With the Da Vinci System, the surgeons operate through a few incisions by utilizing a high-resolution 3D vision system. It features small wristed instruments that bend and rotates greater than the human hand providing a superior precision and control to the surgeon.
Today, surgeons are using Da Vinci Surgical System on patients who are diagnosed with several complex conditions like urological procedures, cancers of cervix, prostate, lung, uterus, colon/rectum as well as heart disease and fibroid tumors.
As it uses a high-resolution 3D vision system, it allows the surgeons to view anatomical structures in natural colors. It provides a natural hand- eye positioning coordination plus the built in microphone facilitates efficient communication in operation theatre.
Robotic Surgery uses robotic systems to aid surgical procedures. During
an operative procedure, the surgeon sits at a control console and observes
the operative field through a video monitor and manually controls the
robotic arms, which replicate hand movement of surgeon. This procedure
makes tiny and keyhole incisions through which a camera and surgical
instruments are placed. The precision is ideal for use in complex
surgeries because it would allow surgeons to avoid nerves and organs.
These small incisions allow the patient to resume his normal activities. In
addition, there is less blood loss, which helps the patients to regain
strength and stamina over a period of time.
All surgeries have a certain degree of complication associated with them though cosmetic results may vary. The serious and life threatening risks that may require hospitalization could be injury to tissues or organs, bleeding, infection and internal scarring that can cause long lasting dysfunction or pain. Though risks associated with minimally invasive surgery may include: a longer operative time, the need to convert procedure to other surgical techniques, the need for additional or larger incision sites.
Orthopedic Oncology is the procedure by which both malignant and
benign tumors occurring in different parts of the body are first
diagnosed and then treated.
These cancerous tumors require an early treatment at the start of the
disease. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the treatments required
either before or after the surgery. The aim of the surgery is to remove
the entire diseased bone in order to avoid amputation and thereby
restoring the appearance and function of the diseased area. Its types
They generally occur in the form of capsules of joints like shoulder,
foot, hip, knee, elbow or wrist. These lesions can develop and harm or
create pain in the joint. The surgical procedure is done to remove the
lesion of the joint and thereby restoring the health and function of the
diseased area. Its types are-
or inherited mutations. In most cases no particular reason is found for
this cancerous condition.
It transplants the bone tissue and the bone grafts are used to rebuild
and repair the diseased bones in knees, spine, hips and at times in
other joints and bones. The bone loss that has been caused by cancers
or fractures can also be repaired with bone grafts. When the body
grafts are accepted by the body then it helps in providing the growth
of new living bone. When the bone graft (transplanted) comes from
the other person then it is termed as an allograft. While in autograft,
the bone comes from either from leg, hips or ribs.
Robotic surgery is a new and minimally evasive procedure used for
treating the cancer. This surgery is more precise surgery as compared
with standard laparoscopy and open surgeries. By using this surgery,
the patients can get more accurate and precise results of the troubled
region which also result in decreased blood loss. Robotic surgery uses
customized treatments which are held by a robotic arm and the
procedure needs small incisions that can lessen the trauma to the
tissues. The procedure is very safe and involves less pain and
complications. The recovery period is also faster and requires a short
stay at the hospital.
The Ilizarov Method uses Ilizarov’s Principle of DISTRACTION
OSTEOGENESIS (osteo=bone, genesis=formation). This refers to the
induction of new bone between bone surfaces that are pulled apart in a
gradual, controlled manner. The distraction initially gives rise to
NEOVASCULARISATION (Neo=new, vascular=relating to blood),
which is what actually stimulates new bone formation. In addition, there
is simultaneous histogenesis (histo=tissue) of muscles, nerves and skin; in
bone diseases (osteomyelitis, fibrous dysplasia, pseudo-arthrosis) this
new bone replaces pathological bone with normal bone. This is a
revolutionary concept; diseases for which earlier there was no treatment
are now successfully treated using the Ilizarov Method.
Indications for use
Called TRANSOSSEOUS OSTEOSYNTHESIS
(trans=across). Wires of 1.5 mm diameter are passed percutaneously
(through the skin) through bones by means of a drill. The protruding ends
of these wires are then fixed to rings with special “wire-fixation” bolts.
These rings in turn are connected and fixed to one another by threaded rods. Once it is fixed, the Ilizarov frame affords a stable support to the affected limb. A CORTICOTOMY is then performed; it is an osteotomy (cutting the bone) where the periosteum of the bone is preserved. Adjustments in the rods produce compression or distraction as desired between the bone ends, and simultaneously, deformities are also corrected. The ring fixator is removed at the end of the treatment An Ilizarov apparatus treating a fractured tibia and fibula. The Ilizarov apparatus is used in a surgical procedure that can be used to lengthen or reshape limb bones. In addition, the procedure is often used to treat complex and/or open bone fractures, where conventional treatment techniques cannot be used. It can also be used to treat infected non-unions of bones not amenable with other techniques.
The device is a specialized form of external fixator, a circular fixator,
modular in construction. Stainless steel rings are fixed to the bone via
stainless steel heavy-gauge wire (called “pins”). The rings are connected
to each other with threaded rods attached through adjustable nuts. The
circular construction and tensioned wires of the Ilizarov apparatus
provide far more structural support than the traditional monolateral
fixator system. This allows early weightbearing. The frame can be used to
support a fractured limb, but it is most commonly used to correct
deformity through callotasis. The procedure consists of an initial surgery,
during which the bone is surgically fractured and the ring apparatus is
attached. As the patient recovers, the fractured bone begins to grow
together. While the bone is growing, the frame is adjusted by means of
turning the nuts, thus increasing the space between two rings. As the
rings are connected to opposite sides of the fracture, this adjustment, done
daily, moves the now-healing fracture apart by approximately one
millimetre per day. The incremental daily increases result in a
considerable lengthening of the limb over time. Once the lengthening
phase is complete, the apparatus stays on the limb to facilitate healing.
The patient can move about on crutches and pain is lessened. Once
healing is complete, a second surgery is necessary to remove the ring
apparatus. The result is a limb that is significantly longer. Additional
surgery may be necessary, in the case of leg lengthening, to lengthen the
Achilles tendon to accommodate the longer bone length. The major
advantage of this procedure is that because the apparatus provides
complete support while the bone is recovering the patient can remain
active aiding recovery. A further use is of bone transport, whereby a
defect in a long bone can be treated by transporting a segment of bone, whilst simultaneously lengthening regenerate to reduce the defect and finally dock with the other segment, producing a single bony unit. While the Ilizarov apparatus is minimally invasive (no large incisions are made,) it is not free of complications. Pain is common and can be severe, but is treatable with analgesics. Careful attention to daily cleaning and hygiene is necessary to prevent pin site infection. Other complications include swelling and muscle transfixion.
The Ilizarov method is widely used to treat complex and/or open bone
fractures. This method is preferred over conventional treatment options
(such as internal fixator or cast) where there is a high risk of infection or
the fracture is of such severity that internal fixators are unworkable.
The following case study illustrates the Ilizarov apparatus treatment
procedure for a fractured limb. The photographs are of the same patient
during the course of treatment. If other individuals desire to post images,
please create a separate gallery/case-study.
The Ilizarov method carries many advantages over other methods for
limb reconstruction. One of
the main advantages of distraction osteogenesis is that it is effective in
mature as well as young
bone, which means treatment using this principle is not limited to
children, but works equally as well
The Ilizarov external circular fixator is a very useful tool for many
Russian studies of the Ilizarov method (Popova and Khodesecich, 1984)
as cited by (Ilizarov &
Rozbruch, 2007) showed that the use of this system reduced treatment
time, the cost of treatment,
and disability payments significantly. When used for the treatment of
fractures and post traumatic
non‐unions, primary disability was decreased by 3‐5 times, and 8 fold
compared with traditional
treatments in the case of open fractures. This meant that more patients
were able to return to work
sooner, which is advantageous for the economy of the country.